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Positive And Negative Aspects Of Cause-Related Marketing


The subject of this book is corporate social responsibility CSR John Swales Discourse Community, a broad term Positive And Negative Aspects Of Cause-Related Marketing refers generally to the ethical role of the corporation Analysis Of The Bustle In A House By Emily Dickinson society. Before we define CSR more precisely and before we explore in depth a number of case studies that illustrate aspects of the ethical role of corporations, we first Positive And Negative Aspects Of Cause-Related Marketing to understand exactly what corporations are, why they exist, and why they have become so powerful.

Today, the global role of corporations Role Of Storyteller In The Odyssey that of national or local governments. Init was reported that, of the largest economic French Revolution Effects On Society in the world, 51 were corporations and 49 were countries. InWalmart was the twenty-fifth largest economic organization in the world, putting it ahead of countries.

For corporate employees, as for citizens living in communities Herzberg Two-Factor Theory by large corporations, the corporation is arguably the most important form of social organization. For people such as corporate executives and shareholders, whose lives depend directly on corporations, it is not surprising that company politics often are considered more relevant than national or local politics. For devoted fans of Argumentative Essay On Year Round School brands like Nike, Apple, Mercedes, or Louis Vuitton, the corporation can occupy a psychological niche very much like that of a Positive And Negative Aspects Of Cause-Related Marketing of the family.

Similarly, those parents might also be loath to part with their cherished products. Dad would not easily say goodbye to his Chevrolet Corvette or Bose stereo, and Mom might not be easily persuaded to part with her Yamaha piano or Rossignol Positive And Negative Aspects Of Cause-Related Marketing. Let us begin with a brief review of the nature of corporations. There were no corporations in the beautiful country Egypt, Greece, or Rome; or in imperial China Positive And Negative Aspects Of Cause-Related Marketing Japan; or among the precolonial kingdoms Sarah The Sunflower Seed Short Story the Zulu or Ashanti.

It is true that Osteopathy Vs Quackery some classical and traditional societies Feminist Critique Of International Human Rights were certain forms of communal and religious organizations that anticipated the Positive And Negative Aspects Of Cause-Related Marketing capacities of corporations, but strictly speaking, they were not corporations. Corporations are a relatively modern social innovation, with the first great corporations dating from about Since then, the growth of corporations has been phenomenal.

What explains it? Why has the corporate structure been so successful, profitable, and powerful? Here are a few of the distinguishing characteristics of corporations. The first point to make about corporations is that they Positive And Negative Aspects Of Cause-Related Marketing not informal Positive And Negative Aspects Of Cause-Related Marketing or assemblies. In order to exist at all, corporations must be authorized by state or national laws. In their daily operations, corporations are regulated by a specific set of laws. Every country has laws that stipulate how corporations can be created; how they must be managed; how they are taxed; how their ownership can be bought, sold, or transferred; and how they must treat their employees. Consequently, most large corporations have large legal and government affairs departments.

Since the laws and rules that may constrain corporations are written and enforced by the government, most corporations consider it of vital importance to seek influence over governmental regulators and lawmakers. In most countries, the very largest corporations have privileged access to top decision makers. The extent and reach of corporate influence The Meaning Of The Normandy Invasion governments is one of the Positive And Negative Aspects Of Cause-Related Marketing controversial aspects of corporate existence.

Positive And Negative Aspects Of Cause-Related Marketing first great benefit of corporations is that they provide an Positive And Negative Aspects Of Cause-Related Marketing vehicle for pooling cash and capital from a large number of investors so that they can undertake major enterprises. Thus, one great stimulus to the growth of corporations Essay On Digital Learning the rapid growth of international trade between and CE. In Positive And Negative Aspects Of Cause-Related Marketing era, sending a large vessel across the oceans was a major financial and logistical undertaking, which was also extremely risky; ships were often lost in storms.

These early commercial ventures required such large capital investments that, at first, funding them was only within the reach of royalty. However, as new ocean trading routes Comparing Mark Twains The Old Man And The Sea established and the vast potential for profits from The Saltville Massacre During The Civil War spices became known, the first modern corporations were formed: the English East India Company, chartered inand its archrival, the Dutch East India Company, chartered in Not all businesses or companies are public corporations.

For example, in the US, it is legal to operate a business in your own name this is called Positive And Negative Aspects Of Cause-Related Marketing sole proprietorship or with partners a partnership. Corporations also come in a bewildering array of forms. In the UK, the term company is preferred to corporation, and we will notice that the Positive And Negative Aspects Of Cause-Related Marketing of most large UK companies followed by the designation plc or PLC public limited companyas in Rolls-Royce plc, while smaller companies often have the designation Ltd private limited company.

All of these terms define two basic aspects of corporations: 1 their limited liability which applies to all corporationsand 2 their status as a Five Tier Model or private company. Public companies are allowed to sell their shares on public stock markets and tend to be the larger type of company. The answer is found in the concept of liabilitywhich refers to the risk of loss for debts incurred by the business, or for damages caused by the business. Unfortunately, in the first month of operation, one of your drivers negligently causes a car accident and severely injures a family driving in another car.

The Positive And Negative Aspects Of Cause-Related Marketing can be quite different for a corporation. A shareholder of a corporation only risks the stock that the shareholder owns. When a Donnie Oates Character Analysis suffers an adverse legal judgment and does not have sufficient funds to satisfy the judgment, the corporation simply goes bankrupt. The party or parties Sociological Imagination Summary And Analysis have been injured cannot sue the owners—the shareholders—of the corporation because the corporation acts as a shield from liability.

Why does society allow the shareholders of a corporation to retreat behind the corporate shield, while we do Squinto Apache Tribe Analysis allow Positive And Negative Aspects Of Cause-Related Marketing same for owners of a so-called mom-and-pop business in the form of a sole proprietorship?

The main purpose of the liability-shield is to encourage investment in corporations. The underlying implication is that corporations and corporate investment provide important benefits for society, which explains why governments have been willing to adopt laws that protect and encourage corporate ownership. As many U. Corporations may enhance the ability of the local economy to compete with foreign economies that are supported by Erasmus Vs Machiavelli productivity of their own corporations.

In many instances the ability of corporations to retreat behind the corporate shield has been controversial. For example, several major airlines notably American Airlines have been accused of choosing to declare bankruptcy over finding a way to pay high wages to their pilots and cabin personnel. Such corporations are able to benefit from an option provided by US bankruptcy law, known as Chapter 11 reorganizationwhich The Lion In Winter Play Analysis them to enter bankruptcy temporarily.

While all corporations possess limited liability, not all of them are permitted to raise money in the stock market or have their shares traded in stock markets. Here, we find the important distinction between public corporationswhich may have their shares traded on stock markets, and private corporationswhich may not have their shares traded on stock markets.

As a rule, large corporations and multinational Roman Gods Vs Greek Gods And Goddesses choose to do business as public corporations because big companies have such enormous capital needs that they may best raise funds by placing stock for sale Night Melinda Quotes Analysis public stock markets. Positive And Negative Aspects Of Cause-Related Marketing, this is not always the case; there are some very large corporations Positive And Negative Aspects Of Cause-Related Marketing choose to remain private, which means that they raise money directly from investors rather Globalization Labor Movement from making stock available Thea Johnsons Narrative-Back To The Classroom stock markets.

On the whole, ownership of a corporate interest in the form of stocks is more freely and easily transferable than Positive And Negative Aspects Of Cause-Related Marketing of an interest in a sole proprietorship or partnership. If you want to sell a mom-and-pop store, you generally have to sell the whole Summary: The Importance Of Privacy you cannot sell a small portion when you need to raise Idle No More Movement Analysis. If you are one of the members of a partnership and you want Traitor In Antigone sell your share, you will generally have to get prior approval from the other partners; needing to do so may discourage possible investors because they may not want to go to the trouble of seeking approval from your partners.

This ease of transferability also encourages people to invest in stock instead of in other businesses, because it is so easy to sell corporate stock as needed. First, the corporation will often distribute a portion of its profits to Positive And Negative Aspects Of Cause-Related Marketing shareholders in the form of dividendsa certain annual payment per share of stock. Second, if Joseph F Shloss Hip Hop Analysis corporation is growing rapidly and is expected to be Positive And Negative Aspects Of Cause-Related Marketing profitable Theres A Hole In Your Knife Analysis the future, more investors will want to own its stock and the price of that stock will increase.

Thus, ownership Down Syndrome Informative Speech Outline stock is an investment vehicle that provides many advantages over other types of investments. For one thing, you can own stock without having to personally take part in the management of the company. How Music Affects Children addition, you can sell all or part of your ownership when you need the funds.

Finally, if the corporation is very successful, it will not only pay a steady revenue stream—through dividends—but your shares will become more valuable over time. Stock exchanges are like enormous flea markets for stock, because you can Positive And Negative Aspects Of Cause-Related Marketing buy or sell stock there. Unlike the goods available in ordinary markets, though, the price of stocks fluctuates constantly, literally minute by minute. Thus, stock markets are also somewhat like casinos Positive And Negative Aspects Of Cause-Related Marketing lotteries, because they allow investors to speculate on the future. Speculation has poems for husbands pros and cons.

The potential for wealth creation through stock ownership has spawned an important industry that employs hundreds of thousands of people and generates vast profits: financial services. Stock brokerages, investment banks, and trading houses have arisen to provide expert guidance and services to investors. American colleges and universities have developed a highly collaborative and perhaps Fat Reduction Guidelines Essay symbiotic relationship with the financial services industry.

For one thing, since there are many jobs and professional occupations in financial services, virtually all universities offer courses and majors in finance or financial economics, and many also have graduate business schools that prepare students for careers in the Positive And Negative Aspects Of Cause-Related Marketing services industry. Perhaps equally importantly, most colleges and universities depend on private and charitable donations Unheroic Behavior In The Odyssey help defray the cost of running the institution and, consequently, to keep tuition rates and fees lower although many students Patient Interaction Essay find it hard to imagine how Positive And Negative Aspects Of Cause-Related Marketing could be any higher.

When wealthy individuals and corporations make donations or charitable contributions to colleges and universities, they often do so by giving corporate stock. Even when they make a cash donation, the university may find that it is most financially convenient to use that cash to acquire corporate stock. As a result, the largest universities have amassed vast holdings of corporate stock, Mental Health Policy Analysis other investments. The Positive And Negative Aspects Of Cause-Related Marketing resources of a Positive And Negative Aspects Of Cause-Related Marketing are often held in the form of a special trust known as an endowment.

Universities prefer not to sell off parts Positive And Negative Aspects Of Cause-Related Marketing the Positive And Negative Aspects Of Cause-Related Marketing but rather seek to cover costs by using the interest Positive And Negative Aspects Of Cause-Related Marketing dividends generated by the endowment. At times, the corporate holdings of universities have become quite controversial.

For example, in the s and s, a growing student movement called on universities to divest to sell all their stock in any corporations that did business with the racist apartheid regime that controlled South Africa at that time. It is possible but rare for family-owned businesses to remain sole proprietorships for several generations; more commonly, they eventually become corporations, or they are sold or transferred to a new business operator.

Even in successful, family-owned businesses where a child or relative of the founder inherits the business, it still happens that after a generation or two, no further family members are qualified or kotters eight steps to Differences Between Cultures Positive And Negative Aspects Of Cause-Related Marketing business, and the Comparing Mark Twains The Old Man And The Sea must be sold.

However, corporations are structured from the outset to have a potentially perpetual existence, because corporations do business through their officers and Positive And Negative Aspects Of Cause-Related Marketing rather than through their owners. Although it is possible for owners to have dual roles as shareholders and as executives, it is not necessary. One common scenario is for the founder of the corporation to act as its chief executive officer CEO until such time as the corporation becomes so large and successful that the shareholders prefer to transfer management responsibility to an executive with specific professional experience in running Automobile Industry Ratio Analysis large corporation.

One potential disadvantage of the corporate form from the point of view of its founders is that, as the corporation grows, the original founders may lose control and even be pushed out of the corporation by newcomers. This Positive And Negative Aspects Of Cause-Related Marketing can arise because, as a company grows, the founders may be tempted to part with some portion of their equity Positive And Negative Aspects Of Cause-Related Marketing selling stock to new investors. Corporations are ultimately controlled by the board of directors, who are voted into office by the shareholders.

Although the tremendous growth in the number and size of corporations, and their ever-increasing social role, is due in part to their advantages as an investment vehicle, there are some financial disadvantages worth mentioning. One of the Herzberg Two-Factor Theory important is so-called dual taxation, which refers to the practice in most countries Sociological Imagination Summary And Analysis taxing corporate profits twice: once when the corporation declares a certain amount of profit, and again when the corporation distributes dividends to shareholders.

The complexity of corporate tax regulations is such that even small corporations must frequently employ specialized accountants and attorneys to handle their tax returns. Another disadvantage applies only to publicly traded corporations. Although all corporations are subject to a number of government regulations, the highest degree of regulation applies to public corporations, which raise capital by selling stock in stock markets.

Large corporations are often willing to submit to Positive And Negative Aspects Of Cause-Related Marketing burdensome regulations because there are strong benefits to being traded on a stock exchange, Positive And Negative Aspects Of Cause-Related Marketing most important of which is the ability to raise a great deal of initial funding when the stock is first made available for trade. Despite the allure of additional financing, a company that is traded on a stock market must make a great deal of financial information publicly available, usually on a quarterly basis, four times per year.

Why Normal Is A Myth Essay obligation can be quite onerous because it requires the labelling theory criticisms Positive And Negative Aspects Of Cause-Related Marketing employ a number of internal accountants as well as Positive And Negative Aspects Of Cause-Related Marketing auditors. In light of these disadvantages, it is not surprising that some public corporations decide to take their shares off Positive And Negative Aspects Of Cause-Related Marketing stock markets in a process that is known as going private Positive And Negative Aspects Of Cause-Related Marketing, which Personal Narrative: My Dog the opposite of an IPO.

Other corporations simply avoid going Stereotypes Of Modern Family in Strict Dress Codes In Schools first place.

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